Increased urinary oxalate excretion (hyperoxaluria) promotes the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Monogenic diseases due to hepatic enzyme deficiency result in chronic hyperoxaluria, promoting end-stage renal disease in children and young adults. Ethylene glycol poisoning also results in hyperoxaluria, promoting acute renal failure and frequently death. Stiripentol is an antiepileptic drug used to treat children affected by Dravet syndrome. It has been shown to inhibit neuronal lactate dehydrogenase 5 enzyme. As this isoenzyme is also the last step of hepatic oxalate production, we hypothesized that stiripentol would potentially reduce hepatic oxalate production and urine oxalate excretion. In vitro, stiripentol decreased the synthesis of oxalate by hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, oral administration of stiripentol significantly reduced urine oxalate excretion in rats. Stiripentol protected the kidneys against calcium oxalate crystal deposits in acute ethylene glycol intoxication and chronic calcium oxalate nephropathy models. In both models, stiripentol significantly improved renal function. Patients affected by Dravet syndrome and treated with stiripentol had a lower urine oxalate excretion than control patients. A young girl affected by severe type I hyperoxaluria received stiripentol for several weeks, and urine oxalate excretion decreased by two-thirds. Stiripentol is a promising potential therapy against genetic hyperoxaluria and ethylene glycol poisoning.
Marine Le Dudal, Léa Huguet, Joëlle Perez, Sophie Vandermeersch, Elise Bouderlique, Ellie Tang, Carole Martori, Nicole Chemaly, Rima Nabbout, Jean-Philippe Haymann, Vincent Frochot, Laurent Baud, Georges Deschênes, Michel Daudon, Emmanuel Letavernier